Both iPhone 8 Plus & iPad Pro are affected — After updating to iOS 13: When I open a photo in the photos app and tap the share icon, I can't choose the different options such as "Use as wallpaper", "Create watch face", "Save to files", "Mail", Message", etc. – it simply closes the app. (I can, however Air Drop) If I choose to duplicate and edit, thus sending the photo to Recents (camera roll), then I can perform those actions. While I can set the wallpaper through settings, I can't use the other actions.
Possibly related: I also updated my MacBook pro to Catalina and had a hard time syncing photos over. My photo library had long ago been migrated over from iPhotos, and was still organized in events/folders. I found that if I moved the folder from "iPhoto events" and into "My Albums", then they would sync over. I don't know if that has anything to do with it, but I wanted to mention the action.