Had the same issue as @zhcplayer posted on Sep 30, 2018 8:17 PM.
When trying the suggestion of starting in safe mode Voice Memos did crash when attempting to record. However, after looking around in Systems Preferences/ Security & Privacy/ Privacy and disabling Location Services for Voice Memos, the recording function is finally back. Hope this helps anybody with the same issue.
[using a MacBook Pro, early 2015/ macOS Catalina v 10.15.3]